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Abstract:This paper provides a phenomenological understanding of interior space to explore the emotional connection between space and experience. It focuses on the significant aspects of interior space, considering how people experience interior space and which aspects improve the quality of spatial and emotional experience. I have argued that the interior experience offers effective ways of stimulating emotional experience to create spatial perception as a way of understanding architecture. Interior experience can be developed through: (a) stimulating a lived body; (b) emphasizing materiality; and (c) generating emotional connection. This allows people to develop an awareness of the sensual aspects of the interior space and improve the quality of their emotional experiences. I have drawn upon representative case studies about spatial experience to explore how they use materiality to stimulate sensory effects and how the multi-sensory space connects with emotional experience, which is one of the fundamental aspects of this paper. I found that an integrated body and materiality are fundamental elements that are needed to enrich the spatial experience, even in an abstract dimension of the work without architectural form. Thus, this paper contributes to the understanding and knowledge of the relationship between interior space and experience with respect to improving the quality of the emotional experience in order to develop spatial experience and considering how experience intervenes in interior space to create a multi-sensory space.Keywords: interior experience; multi-sensory experience; movement; sensory body; emotion; materiality
Body Memory And Architecture Pdf Free
We evaluated a cognitive trait with a clear fitness value in this species, spatial learning of nectar resources. We conducted a spatial learning task on free-living hummingbirds40,41, and related its variation to both the ability to acquire and defend a lek territory (as a proxy of reproductive success) and to the structure of mating vocal signals (as a possible honest indicator of cognitive abilities). The latter association could provide an honest index signal for male-male competition and female choice22,23,24. In addition, the effect of spatial memory was contrasted to those of physical condition-related phenotypic traits such as body size, size of the bill tip (a weapon in male-male agonistic interactions), and load lifting during vertical flight (a measure of physical performance), as these represent common correlates of dominance and reproductive success5,51,52,53, particularly in lekking species54,55. Our findings indicate that spatial memory could play a key role in territory acquisition and defense, and suggest that its effect is more pronounced than those of other phenotypic traits. They also suggest male song reliably indicates spatial learning and memory in this species, further highlighting the relevance of cognitive traits in mating behavior.
We studied the link between a cognitive ability, spatial memory, and a critical element for mating success in lekking species: the ability to acquire and defend a lek territory. We found that free living male long-billed hermits with higher cognitive performance were more likely to own lek territories and also were able to produce more consistent song, the primary signal of territory ownership. The results suggest a stronger effect of spatial memory compared to physical condition parameters traditionally associated to mating success and dominance52,53, particularly in lekking species54,55,56. Overall, our findings are consistent with a key role for cognition in mating in this species.
Natural selection is predicted to optimize the combination of cognitive and non-cognitive phenotypic traits63. Furthermore, several combinations could provide similar fitness outcomes. Since advanced cognitive abilities involve energetic and developmental costs, they could generate trade-offs with other fitness related traits2,3. In this study individuals that performed better in the spatial memory task did not have larger body size or weapons, suggesting that different combinations of cognitive and non-cognitive traits can lead to the same outcome: territory ownership. If true, then advanced spatial memory, large body size and big weapons could all represent alternative (although not completely independent) strategies for intra-sexual competition (e.g. several combinations of body size and spatial memory that all generate the highest probability of territory ownership as shown in Fig. 3a). This finding also indicates that low cognitive performance does not affect self-maintenance. Hence, higher cognitive performance seems to be only favored by the competitive advantage in obtaining resources critical to reproduction, further supporting the role of sexual selection in promoting advanced spatial memory.
The correlation of song structure with two traits influencing territory tenure, body size and spatial memory supports the use of songs as a reliable or honest index signals of male competitive abilities. Honesty in index signals is given by physical, physiological or developmental constraints on organs directly involved in signal production22,23,24. Indeed, the negative relation between body size and vocal signal frequency is a classical example of an honest index signal24, due to its strong theoretical support65,66: low frequencies require longer and/or bigger vocal organs. This relationship is common in anurans67, although in birds it has been found mostly across species (i.e. bigger species show lower frequency vocalizations; e.g. ref.68) but rarely at the intra-specific level69,70,71. To our knowledge, the observed negative correlation between body size and lowest frequency in long-billed hermit songs provides the only known intraspecific example in a non-oscine (i.e. non-songbird) vocal learning bird.